Jumat, 06 Mei 2016

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Lebih Dekat dengan Relative Clauses Bahasa Inggris

Belajar Bahasa Inggris Relative Clauses

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Sumber: www.Google.co.id/Gambar/Relative Clauses

Apa itu Relative Clauses?

Relative Clause. Relative clause adalah klausa dependen yang berfungsi sebagai adjektiva; oleh karenanya, ia menerangkan nomina atau pronomina. Untuk alasan ini, klausa relatif juga disebut klausa adjektiva.

   The first American thanksgiving feast, which took place in 1621, lasted three days.
   Everyone who studied for the exam passed it easily.

Dalam kalimat pertama, klausa dependen which took place in 1621 adalah klausa relatif yang menerangkan frasa nomina the first American thanksgiving feast. Frasa nomina ini adalah anteseden dari klausa relatif.

Lalu apa klausa relatif dalam kalimat kedua? Apa antesedennya? Apakah antesedennya nomina atau pronomina?

Klausa relatifnya adalah who studied for the exam
Antesedennya adalah everyone yang berupa pronomina.

Baca juga:  Klausa Relatif Pola Obyek atau Klausa Relatif dengan Pronomina Relatif sebagai Obyek.

Relative Pronouns and Adverbs

Klausa relatif mulai dengan pronomina relatif atau adverbia relatif.

Pronomina      who, whom, whose, that         merujuk ke manusia
                          which, that, whose                  merujuk ke bukan manusia dan benda

Adverbia           when, where                          merujuk ke waktu atau tempat

Position of Relative Clauses

Tempatkan klausa relatif setelah antesedennya dan sedekat mungkin kepada anteseden tersebut untuk menghindari kebingungan.

He left the gift in his friend's car that he had just bought.
(Ini tidak jelas apakah klausa relatif menerangkan car atau gift.)

He left the gift that he had just bought in his friend's car.
(Klausa relatif dengan jelas menerangkan gift.)

Kadang-kadang, frasa preposisi hadir antara anteseden dan klausa relatif.

    Manarung was visited by a friend from San Juan who was touring the country.
   Try writing a sentence of your own that contains a relative clause.

Verb Agreement in Relative Clauses

Verba dalam klausa relatif seharusnya berkesesuaian dalam jumlah dengan antesedennya. Bandingkan:
   A person who works part-time usually receives no benefits.
   (Verba works bentuk singular untuk berkesesuaian dengan anteseden singular person.)

   People who work part-time usually receive no benefits.
   (Verba work bentuk plural untuk berkesesuaian dengan anteseden plural people.)

Punctuation of Relative Clauses

Klausa relatif bisa salah satu restrictive (necessary) atau nonrestrictive (unnecessary). Klausa restriktif penting dan sangat diperlukan karena ia memberi identitas antesedennya demi pembaca. Jangan gunakan koma dengan klausa restriktif. Istilah restrictive kadang-kadang dikenal dengan istilah defining dan nonrestrictive dengan istilah non-defining.

   The professor who teaches my biology class won a Nobel Prize two years ago.
   (Profesor yang mana yang memenangkan Hadiah Nobel dua tahun yang lalu? Klausa who teaches my biology class sangat diperlukan untuk mengidentifikasi sang profesor.)

   He won the prize for research that might lead to a cure for AIDS.
   (Untuk riset yang mana dia memenangkan hadiah? Kita memerlukan klausa that might lead to a cure for AIDS untuk memberitahu kita.)

Klausa nonrestriktif tidak begitu diperlukan untuk memberi identitas antesedennya; ia hanya memberi pembaca beberapa informasi tambahan. Karena ia dapat dihilangkan tanpa mengurangi makna, pisahkan ia (nonrestrictive clause) dari sisa kalimat dengan koma.

   Professor Jones, who teaches my biology class, won a Nobel Prize two years ago.
   (Orang yang memenamgkan Hadiah Nobel diidentifikasi oleh namanya, sehingga klausa who teaches my biology class adalah tambahan, informasi yang tak begitu diperlukan tentang Professor Jones. Jika ia dihilangkan, kita masih akan tahu orang yang mana yang memenangkan Hadiah Nobel.)

   He won the prize for his research into the structure of T-cells, which might lead to a cure for AIDS.
  (Kita telah tahu untuk riset yang mana dia memenangkan hadiah: his research into the structure of T-cells. Informasi which might lead to a cure for AIDS tak begitu diperlukan untuk mengidentifikasi riset; ia hanya memberi kita informasi tambahan tentang riset.)

Untuk melengkapi materi tulisan ini berikut disertakan sebuah video. Selamat menonton.

Belajar Bahasa Inggris memasuki Latihan

PRACTICE: Restrictive and Nonrestrictive Clauses
STEP 1: Underline the relative clause or clauses in each sentence. (Some sentences have two.)
STEP 2: In the parentheses, write R for a restrictive and NR for a nonrestrictive clause.
STEP 3: Add commas to the nonrestrictive clauses.

(R)   Families whose incomes are below a certain level pay no income tax.
(NR)  My family, whose income is more than $50,000, pays about 25 percent income tax.

(   ) 1. The sun which in forty minutes can produce enough solar energy to meet humankind's needs for a year is one of Earth's potential sources of power.
(   ) 2. According to an article that appeared in Time magazine we are at the beginning of a medical computer revolution.
(   ) 3. A medical computer is a machine that analyzes the results of laboratory tests and electrocardiograms.
(   ) 4. Laser beams which are useful in both medicine and industry were first predicted in science fiction stories seventy-five years ago.
(   ) 5. Physicians who feed patient symptoms into the computer receive a list of diseases that fit the symptoms of their patients.
(   ) 6. The country that has the highest per capita income is not the United States which is in third place.
(   ) 7. Kuwait which is a small country in the Middle East is in the place.
(   ) 8. It was a thrilling experience to meet the author of the book that we had been reading all semester.
(   ) 9. The public is highly critical of the tobacco industry whose profits have been increasing in spite of the health ricks of smoking.
(   ) 10. Carbohydrates which are composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen are organic compounds.
(   ) 11. People who use body language to express themselves are interesting to watch.
(   ) 12. My brother-in-law who is from Italy moves his hands a lot when he is talking.
(   ) 13. The man whom my sister married is Italian; he uses his hands as much as he uses his mouth to communicate.
(   ) 14. X-ray machines are gradually being replaced by machines that can provide clearer, more detailed images of the human body, its tissues, and its organs.
(   ) 15. X-ray machines are gradually replaced by CAT scanners and MRI devices which can provide clearer, more detailed images of the human body, its tissues, and its organs.
(   ) 16. The company promised to reimburse everyone who had bought a detective product.
(   ) 17. Students whose grade point averages fall below 2.0 will be placed on probation.
(   ) 18. She plans to marry her childhood sweetheart whom she has known since they were five years old.
(   ) 19. The Republican party whose goal is to win the election accused the Democrats of using fund-raising practices that are unethical and possibly illegal.
(   ) 20. My English teacher enjoys novels that combine history and fiction; Pillars of Stone which tells about the construction of the great Gothic cathedrals in Europe during the Middle Ages is one of her favorites.

Belajar Bahasa Inggris tentang 'lebih dekat dengan Relative Clauses' telah kita ulas bersama. Setelah membaca ulasan ini semoga Anda menjadi pembelajar Bahasa Inggris yang cakap menggunakan klausa relatif. Amin.

Sesi belajar Bahasa Inggris dengan ulasan 'lebih dekat dengan klausa relatif' kita sudahi sampai di sini dulu. Ojo lali menyimak ulasan belajar Bahasa Inggris berikutnya. Tetap semangat! Keep moving on!

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