Rabu, 01 April 2015

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Belajar Bahasa Inggris: Knowing a Word

Belajar Bahasa Inggris: Knowing a Word (Memahami Kata)




WHAT DOES IT MEAN TO KNOW A WORD?

To really know a word, one needs to know its:
·         spelling (orthography)
·         phonetic representation (pronunciation, syllabification, and stress)
·         morphological irregularity
·         syntactic features and restrictions (including part of speech)
·         common derivations and collocations
·         semantic features and restrictions
·         pragmatic features and restrictions

Consider, for example, the form of the word child.
1.      The spelling of child is c-h-i-l-d
2.      Phonetic representation
The pronunciation of child is /Ĩayld/
3.      Morphological irregularity
The noun child has an irregular and idiosyncratic plural, children.
4.      Syntactic features and restrictions (including part of speech)
The word child is a noun and the fact that child is a common countable noun.
5.      Common derivatives of child include childlike, childish, and childhood.
Common collocations (go together) of child include child’s play, child labor, and child psychology.
6.      Semantic information also helps to distinguish among words with similar, but not identical, meanings. To truly know a word means to know both how it differs from and how it is similar to others. Child is human and is neutral regarding gender distinction. The term child contrasts with similar term for younger humans, such as infant and baby. The term child also contrasts with older humans, such as adolescent or adult.
7.      Pragmatic features
The speaker would be able to contrast child with other words with the same meaning—for example, an informal counterpart, kid. Its singular form, kid has a certain pejorative connotation:
            
            It’s a snow day today. My kids are home from school. (acceptable)
            It’s a snow day today. My kid is home from school. (questionable)

Many native speakers of English would prefer to use son or daughter

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THE FORM OF WORDS
MORPHOLOGICAL AFFIXATION
English morphemes can be divided into two basic categories: freestanding words and morphemes that are bound to other words. Free morphemes can be subdivided further into two types: those morphemes that have more lexical content and those that are more grammatical in function. The free morphemes with lexical content represent the major parts of speech:
            nouns                                       adjectives, and
            verbs                                        adverbs
The free grammatical functional morphemes include the minor parts of speech:
            articles
            prepositions, and
            conjunctions
The bound morphemes consist of two kinds of affixes:
            derivational, and
            inflectional

Derivational Morpheme
When a morpheme added to a word results in either a different part of speech or the same part of speech with a different lexical meaning, it is a derivational morpheme. Derivational affixes can be prefixes: (e.g., unbend) and suffixes (e.g., argument).

Inflectional morpheme:
changes the form of a word without changing its basic part of speech. For instance: the additional of –ing to the verb watch in I am watching television. Watch remains a verb after the –ing has been affixed, but the suffix adds a grammatical meaning, namely that the action is an ongoing one.

There are eight inflectional affixes in English:
Verbs:
·         present participle --> watching
·         present tense—third person singular --> walks
·         past tense --> jumped
·         past participle --> eaten
Nouns:
·         possessive --> John’s
·         plural --> books
Adjectives and adverbs:
·         comparative --> clearer, faster
·         superlative --> clearest, fastest

The only inflectional affixes that are not suffixes involve the irregular forms:
            internal voice change: mouse --> mice (plural)
                                                man --> men     child --> children
                                                 ring --> rang (past tense) --> rung (past participle)
 no change:                   one deer --> several deer (zero plural)
                                                 hit --> hit --> hit (zero past tense and past participle)                         
 suppletive form:           go --> went; be --> was (past tense)
                                     good --> better (comparative) --> best (superlative)
                                    bad --> worse (comparative) --> worst (superlative)

PRODUCTIVE LEXICAL PROCESSES
The lexicon also contains rules governing thee productive processes of English word formation:
            compounding,
            derivational affixation, and
            conversion.
Compounding
Compounding, or putting together existing words to form a new lexical unit (rain + coat = raincoat). Take the noun house, for instance. We have household, housemate, house sitter, houseboat, house arrest, housebound, housebreaking, housebroken, housefly, housekeeper, houselights, housewarming, housewife, househusband, housework. Many parts of speech can be combined in this way, sometimes ending up as one word, sometimes as two or more.
            Some of the most frequent English compounding patterns are:
            noun + noun: stone wall, baby blanket, rainbow
            noun +verb: homemade, rainfall, lip-read
            noun + verb-er: baby-sitter, can opener, screwdriver
            adj. + noun: blackbird, greenhouse, cold cream
            adj. /adv. + noun + -en: quick-frozen, nearsighted, dim-witted
            prep. + noun: overlord, underdog, underworld
            prep. + verb: underestimate, undercut, overstep
            verb + particle: makeup, breakdown, stakeout

Derivational Affixation
Derivational affixes can be prefixes, which change the meaning (expatriate, unrepentant), or suffixes, which usually change the part of speech of the word stem (washable, childish). It is possible for a word stem to have both a derivational prefix and suffix (unthinkable) or more than one suffix (governmental).
The most common and useful derivational prefixes: (e.g., anti-, bi-, inter-, pre-, un-) and suffixes (e.g., -able, -er, ism, -ist, -less, -ness).
The common suffixes whose major function is to change one part of speech into another: -ous, -ary, and –ful transform nouns into adjectives such as famous, customary, successful, and –ness and –ity transform adjectives into nouns such as happiness and serenity.
PREFIX
MEANING
EXAMPLE
anti-
bi-
inter-
pre-
un-
com, con, col
sui
against
two
between
before
not
together
self
antipathy
bicameral
interpose
premonition
unknown
commit, confound, collate
suicide
           
Conversion
The other important productive lexical process in English is conversion. This occurs when one part of speech is converted into another part of speech, without any derivational affixation.
1.      He put butter on his bread. --> He buttered his bread.
He poured water on the plants. --> He watered the plants.
2.      Jo removed dust from the desk. --> Jo dusted the desk.
I took the pits out of the dates. --> I pitted the dates.
3.      He cut the log with a saw. --> He sawed the log.
Sue gathered the leaves with a rake. --> She raked the leaves.
In the following case, a prepositional meaning is incorporated into the verb:
            Hal walked across the street. --> Hal crossed the street.

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