Sabtu, 04 April 2015

Published 15.26 by with 0 comment

Belajar Bahasa Inggris: Apa Itu Paragraf

Belajar Bahasa Inggris tentang Paragraph

"Psychologists tell us that we can remember things better and longer if we can group related ideas into clusters. Paragraphs help readers do this."


What Is a Paragraph?
A paragraph is a group of related sentences about a single topic. The topic of a paragraph is one, and only one, idea.
                                                                                                  _Ann Hogue

A paragraph is a basic unit of organization in writing in which a group of related sentences develops one main idea. A paragraph can be as short as one sentence or as long as ten sentences.
                                                                                                 _Alice Oshima & Ann Hogue

Each paragraph is like a mini composition, having a single idea expressed in a topic sentence and fully developed in the subsequent sentences of that paragraph.
                                                                                                 _Vincent Ryan Ruggiero

·      A paragraph can be as short as one sentence or as long as ten sentences. The number of sentences is unimportant; however, the paragraph should be long enough to develop the main idea clearly.
·         A paragraph may stand by itself.
·         In academic writing, a paragraph is often used to answer a test question.

A well-written paragraph contains five elements:
1.       a topic sentence,
2.       supporting sentence,
3.       a concluding sentence,
4.       unity, and
5.       coherence.

Paragraph Structure


                Gold, a precious metal, is prized for two important characteristics. First of all, gold has a lustrous beauty that is resistant to corrosion. Therefore, it is suitable for jewelry, coins, and ornamental purposes. Gold never needs to be polished and will remain beautiful forever. For example, a Macedonian coin remains as untarnished today as the day it was minted twenty-three centuries ago. Another important characteristic of gold is its usefulness to industry and science. For many years, it has been used in hundreds of industrial applications. The most recent use of gold is in astronauts’ suits. Astronauts wear gold-plated heat shields for protection outside spaceships. In conclusion, gold is treasured not only for its beauty but also for its utility.
belajar bahasa inggris tentang paragraf, belajar bahasa inggris perihal paragraf, belajar bahasa inggris seputar paragraf, belajar bahasa inggris membahas paragraf, belajar bahasa inggris mengulas paragraf, belajar bahasa inggris mengupas paragraf, Apa itu paragraf jadi bahasan belajar bahasa inggris

Topic Sentence
The topic sentence states the main idea of the paragraph. The topic sentence tells the reader what the paragraph is going to be about. The topic sentence is the most general, most important sentence in the paragraph. It  contains both a topic and a controlling idea.
·         introduces the reader to the topic of the paragraph.
·         states the main idea of the paragraph.
·         focuses the paragraph.

The topic sentence contains words that need to be explained, describes, and supported in the sentences that follow in the paragraph. These words are called controlling ideas because they control the information that is given in the paragraph. Notice how the topic sentence of the model states both the topic and the controlling idea:

           TOPIC                                                                    CONTROLLING IDEA
Gold, a precious metal, is prized for two important characteristics.

Supporting Sentences
Supporting sentences develop the topic sentence. That is, they explain the topic sentence by giving reasons, examples, facts, statistics, and quotations. Some of the supporting sentences that explain the topic sentence about gold are:

First of all, gold has a lustrous beauty that is resistant to corrosion.
For example, a Macedonian coin remains as untarnished today as the day it was minted twenty-three centuries ago.
Another important characteristic of gold is its usefulness to industry and science.
The most recent use of gold is in astronauts’ suits.

Concluding Sentence
The sentence that ends the paragraph is called the concluding sentence. It usually uses one or more of the following techniques:
a.       summarizes the material in the paragraph.
b.      offers a solution to the problem stated in the paragraph.
c.       predicts a situation that will result or occur from the statements made in the paragraph.
d.      makes a recommendation concerning material presented in the paragraph.
e.      states a conclusion to information given in the paragraph.
The concluding sentence signals the end of the paragraph and leaves the reader with important points to remember:
                In conclusion, gold is treasured not only for its beauty but also for its utility.

Paragraph Unity: using a controlling idea
A unified paragraph has a single clear focus, and all its sentences relate to that focus. Unity means that you discuss only one main idea in a paragraph. The main idea is stated in the topic sentence, and then each and every supporting sentence develops that idea. If, for example, you announce in your topic sentence that you are going to discuss two important characteristics of gold, discuss only these. Do not discuss any other ideas, such as the price of gold or gold mining.
The focus for a paragraph is achieved by means of a controlling idea. In a paragraph the controlling idea is clearly implied or, more commonly, explicitly stated in the topic sentence. The topic sentence sums up the central idea of the paragraph. It serves as your guide for developing that idea and as the reader’s guide for understanding it.

Paragraph Coherence: organizing ideas
A coherent paragraph moves logically from thought to thought, knitting the thoughts together in an orderly way. Coherence means that your paragraph is easy to read and understand because: (1) your supporting sentences are in some kind of logical order and (2) your ideas are connected by the use of appropriate transition signals. For example, in the paragraph about gold, there are two supporting ideas: Gold is beautiful and gold is useful. Each of these supporting ideas is discussed, one after the other, and an example is given for each one. Furthermore, the relationship between the ideas is clearly shown by using appropriate transition words and phrases such as first of all, for example, another important characteristic, and in conclusion.

In this paper we want to discuss several kinds of paragraphs. That is, Comparison/Contrast Paragraphs, Process Paragraphs, Definition/Clarification Paragraphs, Cause-Effect Paragraphs, and Argumentative Paragraphs.

COMPARISON: identifies and analyses similarities between two persons, places, things, or ideas.
CONTRAST: identifies and analyses differences between two persons, places, things, or ideas.
Comparison and contrast paragraphs are sometimes used to explain a topic. More often, they are used to support the evaluation of two persons, places, things, or ideas. For example, X is better, more beautiful, easier, more helpful, etc. than Y, and so X is preferable to Y.
Writers whose purpose is to compare (or contrast) in order to evaluate and select one of the persons, ideas, places, or events develop criteria (factors by which they can judge their topic) to make the comparison (or contrast). These criteria are the points that are supported by the facts, examples, physical description, and/or personal experience generated by the writer.
Organization of Comparison/Contrast Paragraphs
There are two ways to organize a comparison/contrast paragraph:
A.      application of one criterion to both of the sub-topics within the topic at the same time.
B.      discussion of each sub-topic separately, using all criteria with each sub-topic.

A                                                                                                             B
Basic Outline                                                                                     Alternative Outline
TOPIC SENTENCE                                                                              TOPIC SENTENCE
1.       X and Y (criterion 1)                                                         1.  X
A.      Supporting detail                                                           A.  criterion 1
B.      Supporting detail                                                                 (1) supporting detail
                                                                                                            (2) supporting detail
1. X and Y (criterion 2)
     A. supporting detail                                                                         B. criterion 2
     B. supporting detail                                                                               (1) supporting detail
1.  X and Y (criterion 3)                                                                              (2) supporting detail
     A. supporting detail                                                                   2.  Y
     B. supporting detail                                                                          A. criterion 1
CONCLUDING SENTENCE                                                                         (1) supporting detail
                                                                                                                           (2) supporting detail
                                                                                                                       B. criterion 2
                                                                                                                            (1) supporting detail
                                                                                                                            (2) supporting detail
                                                                                                                CONCLUDING SENTENCE
Comparison/Contrast Connectors
Common Comparison Connectors
Likewise,                                                             ….. also …..
Similarly,                                                              ….., too.
In like manner,                                                  ….. the same …..
In the same way,                                             …..the same as …..
Common Contrast Connectors
, but                                     However,                            Although                        Unlike
, yet                                     In contrast,                          Even though                   Whereas
                                                                                      On the other hand,

The process paragraph describes how to do something: how to get a visa, how to buy a house, how to do a folk dance, etc. Academic process paragraphs are a part of most laboratory reports (how to do an experiment such as dissecting a frog or performing a chemical reaction) in which the supporting technique of physical description is important.
Process paragraphs are generally organized in chronological order (that is, according to time). Chrono means time, and chronological means logic in time. When you write a process paragraph, you will:
·         choose a topic that is narrow enough to be described in complete detail for your intended audience,
·         give details of the process in the correct order,
·         give reasons for the order (if appropriate),
·         include negative directions (or warnings) if necessary,
·         use chronological connectors to help the reader.

Chronological Connectors
Sentence Introducers:
                First, ……. Second, …….   Then, ……..   After that, …….   Finally, …….
Time Introducers:
                ……. before ……. after ……. when ……. while ……. until ……. during ……

The definition/clarification paragraph defines words or ideas and/or makes those words or ideas clearer for a reader. In academic writing, definition/clarification paragraphs are frequently required in course writing tasks to explain concepts, synthesis reading, or demonstrate knowledge of the course.
Paragraphs that define or clarify words or ideas differ from process paragraphs because:
·         They are not organized chronologically. Although the connectors first, second, etc. can be used, these connectors do not necessarily indicate either time or importance. Often, they simply indicate the number of points to be made.
     They do not tell “how to.” Instead, definition/clarification paragraphs answer the question “What?”
What does ……………………………………………………………….. mean?
What does ……………………………………………………………….. look like?
What is …………………………………………………………………….. ?

Short words                             Long words                     Others

Introductory                                                                                 First thing first,                  First,
                                                                                                                                            The first …
Additional Information                       …, and …                          Furthermore,                    Also,
(Middle Paragraph Connectors)                                                   Moreover,                   … also …
                                                                                                   In addition,
Expected Information                      …, so …                                                                     Of course,
(Middle Paragraph Connectors)                                                                                          Naturally,
Clarifying Information                                                                                                           In fact,
                                                                                                                              As a matter of fact,
(Middle Paragraph Connectors)                                                                                             That is,
                                                                                                                                   In other words,
Example Signal                       …, such as                         Such things like:                      For example,
(Middle Paragraph Connectors)                                                                                        For instance,
                                                                                                                                      To illustrate,
Conclusion Signal                                                                 Therefore,                         To conclude
                                                                                                                                     In conclusion,
                                                                                                                                     In summary,
                                                                                                                                    To summarize,

Cause (s) and effect (s), like comparison and contrast, can occur either in the same paragraph or separately, that is, there can be cause paragraphs, effect paragraphs, or cause-effect paragraphs.

Cause paragraphs discuss the causes (or reasons) for effects (or consequences). A cause paragraph usually answers the question “Why?”
                Why does a volcano erupt?
                Why do headaches occur?
                Why do some apples turn red?
Writers of cause paragraphs, then usually begin with effect (the volcano erupting, the headaches occurring) and then explain the causes for these effects.

Effect paragraphs discuss the effects (or consequences) of an action, result, or occurrence. An effect paragraph often answers the question “What?”
                What are the effects of an earthquake?
                What are the effects of a high fat diet?
                What are the effects of failing a test?
Writers of effect paragraphs usually begin with a topic sentence that describes the event, the occurrence, or result. The paragraph that follows describes the effect (s) of that event, occurrence, or result.
Sometimes paragraphs include both causes and effects. This happens particularly when, for example, in a series of effects, an effect becomes a cause for another effect.

Organization of Cause – Effect Paragraphs
Many cause or effect paragraphs are organized from most-to-least important, or from least-to most important causes or effects. Other cause-effect paragraphs are organized with points of equal importance. Some cause or effect paragraphs are organized chronologically—that is, according to time.
Cause (C) -- Effect (E) Connectors
C……., so ……. E                                  Therefore, …… E                               E ……. because …… C
First, C or E                                          Consequently, E                                               E …… because of …… C
Second, C or E                                   As a result, ……. E                             E ……. due to ……. C
                                                                For this reason, ……. E                    E ……. since …… C

In an argumentative paragraph the writer wants to accept or reject an idea, realize that action should be taken to solve the problem, or try a new way of doing something. The writer should state her/his opinion about something which s/he believes to be true. For example:
·         Women should be allowed to serve in the military.
·         Drugs should be legalized.
·         Homosexuality is not a crime.
·         Governments are not supposed to be too powerful.
·         Should smoking be banned in public places?
Before writing the paragraph the writer should make a list of more than one reason in support of her/his opinion (pro) and the main reason against the opinion (con). For example:

PROPOSAL: All handgun sales should be prohibited.
PRO                                                                                                       CON
-Would decrease violent crimes.                                                               -Would restrict individual freedom (a person
-Would save taxpayer money (less police)                           could not buy what s/he wanted)
-Would help create a better social environment.

Then, in the paragraph, the writer should attack and refute the con by showing that it is wrong because it is based on misleading information, or by showing that it is weak because it is based on insufficient information or ignores significant information, or be agreeing that it is valid but showing that her/his opinion is more compelling. For example:

PROPOSAL: All handgun sales should be prohibited.
CON                                                                                      ATTACK AND REFUTATION
Would restrict individual freedom                                      The opponent is particularly right--
(a person could not buy what s/he wanted)                        freedom to buy would be restricted, but
                                                                                        freedom from fear and freedom of
                                                                                        movement would be decreased. 

Transitional markers. A transitional marker is a word or a phrase placed at or near the beginning of a sentence to indicate its relation to the preceding sentence. You should be equally careful to know them and to use them when they create clarity.
Here is a list of many of the common transitional words and phrases:

again, also, and, and then, besides, equally important, finally, first, further, furthermore, in addition, last, likewise, moreover, next, second, third, too 

accordingly, as a result, consequently, hence, in short, otherwise, then, therefore, thus, truly 

In a like manner, likewise, similarly

after all, although this may be true, at the same time, even though, I admit, naturally, of course

after all, although true, and yet, at the same time, but, for all that, however, in contrast, in spite of, nevertheless, notwithstanding, on the contrary, on the other hand, still, yet

for example, for instance, incidentally, indeed, in fact, in other words, in particular, specifically, that is, to illustrate

in brief, in conclusion, in short, on the whole, to conclude, to summarize, to sum up

after a short time, afterwards, as long as, as soon as, at last, at length, at that time, at the same time, before, earlier, immediately, in the meantime, lately, later, meanwhile, of late, presently, shortly, since, soon, temporarily, thereafter, thereupon, until, when, while

The following paragraphs illustrate various placements for the topic sentence.
The topic sentence may be the first sentence of the paragraph. Such paragraphs state their central idea first and then add details supporting it. This kind of paragraph occurs in expository writing, but it also appears in persuasive and descriptive writing as well.

The ENCYCLOPAEDIA BRITANNICA, although valuable research tools, is difficult to read              and hard to handle—hardly designed for the hasty researcher. Each article is thorough and detailed, but the tiny print is extremely hard to read. To be assured of getting every fact and detail, the researcher needs a strong light and unless his eyes are keen, a magnifying glass. To pick up a volume in the first place, one needs both hands. One doesn’t balance a Britannica volume in one hand while scribbling furiously with the other. A table or desk to lay the volume open on is absolutely necessary. But even sitting comfortably at a desk with a Britannica presents problems. To avoid crushing or tearing the onion-thin pages requires slow, deliberate, careful moves. Haste or carelessness could easily result in obliterating the whole article one wishes to read. Given these disadvantages to using the Encyclopaedia Britannica, fly-by-night researchers should consider other general reference books. (TOPIC SENTENCE FIRST)

The topic sentence may be the last sentence of the paragraph. Such paragraphs give details first and lead up to the main point in the final sentence.
Beginning at breakfast with flying globs of oatmeal, spilled juice, and toast that always lands jelly-side down, a day with small children grows into a nightmare of frantic activity, punctuated with shrieks, cries, and hyena-style laughs. The very act of playing turns the house into a disaster area: blankets and sheets that are thrown over tables and chairs to form caves, miniature cars and trucks that race endlessly up and down hallways, and a cat that becomes a caged tiger, imprisoned under the laundry baskets. After supper, with more spilled milk, uneaten vegetables, and tidbits fed to the cat under the table, it’s finally time for bed. But before they fall blissfully asleep, the children still have time to knock over one more bedtime glass of water, jump on the beds until the springs threaten to break, and demand a last ride to the bathroom on mother’s back. Constant confusion is a way of life for parents of small children. (TOPIC SENTENCE LAST)

The topic sentence may appear first and last. In such paragraphs the last sentence repeats the idea of the first, frequently restating it with some amplification or a slightly different emphasis in the light of the intervening details or discussion.
Clearly then, our first step is to convince our students of the importance of working from a thesis. The task is difficult, but we have their original motivation working for us. The students will easily understand that to work from a thesis is the way to please teacher, get a good grade, fulfill the assignment, and so on. If understanding the concept of thesis, finding an effective one, and organizing a paper about it were merely rote skills, this sort of motivation, superficial and temporary though it is, would be sufficient for our initial purposes. Full acceptance will come, and will only come, after personal experience has convinced each student that these procedures actually improve writing. Unfortunately, for this simple solution, thesis skills require a logical chain of reasoning and individual reflection. They cannot be exercised effectively enough to achieve even the required preliminary success without some degree of real commitment on the part of the individual student. So our first task is to bring about in our students a real conversion of idea: we must genuinely convince them of the persuasive purpose of the thesis and the essentially persuasive nature of all writing. (TOPIC SENTENCES FIRST AND LAST)

Belajar Bahasa Inggris tentang paragraf telah dibahas. Apakah ulasannya cukup jelas? Semoga saja jelas dan semoga saja bisa memberi pencerahan kepada para pembelajar Bahasa Inggris. Belajar Bahasa Inggris online yang terpercaya dan teruji. Tetap semangat! Keep moving on!

Follow my twitter: @baryzin


Oshima, Alice & Ann Hogue. 1999. Writing Academic English-3rd ed. NY: Pearson Education
Hogue, Ann. 1996. First Step in Academic Writing. NY: Addison-Wesley Longman
Leggett, Glenn H. 1985. Prentice-Hall Handbook for Writers. New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, Inc.
Ruggiero, Vincent Ryan. 1981. The Art of Writing. California: Alfred Publishing Co., Inc.
For Internal Use Only.  2007 . Academic Writing: Intermediate. Depok: Program Pelayanan Bahasa Fakultas Ilmu Pengetahuan Budaya UI


Posting Komentar